Sorting Conifers names

General Bibliography




Complementary & specific to conifers

Agbina, 2010,  Э Н Ц И К Л О П Е Д И Я  Р А С Т Е Н И Й  (ENCYCLOPAEDIA  BOTANICA) - Национальное название (Russian) - Latin Names.  < >. Russian

AGROVOC, F.A.O.  < >.  Multilingual

Alden Harry A.  1997, Softwoods of North America. United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service Forest.  Products Laboratory. General Technical Report  FPL–GTR–102. < >.

Anonymous, 2008, Automatic Transliteration utility. <  >. A valuable aid in working out pronunciation. Best used with vowels (marks/dots) included in Hebrew words. Romanised Hebrew

APC - CHAH, 2010, Australian Plant Census - Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria). Cupressaceae. < >. Taxonomy

Arboretum Volčji Potok , 2006,  Interaktiven herbarij - Seznam latinskih imen & Seznam slovenskih imen. Arboretum Volčji Potok , Radomlje, Slovenia. Izdelava in vzdrževanje WSI.
< >. Slovenian

Arita Masanori (Dr.), Suwa Kazuhiro, Yoshimoto Miwa & Gambe Tadashi , 2008 - 2009.  "Search Extension Transforms Wiki into a Relational System: a case for flavonoid metabolite database", BioData Mining 1:7, 2008.  Metabolomics. Pinaceae.
< >. Japanese

Avinoam Danin (Prof.), Udi Oron et al., 2003 - 2006, Flora of Israel Online,  The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
< > (Beta Hebrew version).< > (Beta English Version) . Hebrew

BGPlants compilation group, 2000 - 2010, Plant Names of the Japanese botanical gardens. Japanese Botanical Gardens Association. < >. Japanese language

Bisby FA, Roskov YR, Orrell TM, Nicolson D, Paglinawan LE, Bailly N, Kirk PM, Bourgoin T, van Hertum J, eds (2008). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist. Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
< >. 101 pages of botanical names from Abies to Wollemia nobilis W. G. Jones et al.

Brummitt et al., 2004. The Significance of 'It' in the Nomenclature of Three Tasmanian Conifers: Microcachrys Tetragona and Microstrobos Niphophilus (Podocarpaceae), and Diselma Archeri (Cupressaceae), by Richard K. Brummitt, Robert R. Mill and Aljos Farjon - 2004. International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT).

Bruno, Cejas & Freire, 2010, Online Dictionaries - World Flora. < >. Spanish

Calflora, 2010.  Information on California plants for education, research and conservation. [web application]. 2010. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database [a non-profit organization]. Available:   (Accessed: Feb 18, 2010).

Czyzak Izabela , 2006 , Projekt i wykonanie (Polish & Latin names and Beautiful gallery of conifer cones, including Pinus). < >.

de Laubenfels David J.  1988,  Coniferales. P. 337-453 in Flora Malesiana, Series I, Vol. 10. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

de Laubenfels D. J.  2009, Nomenclatural Actions for the New World Cypresses (Cupressaceae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 19(3):300-306. 2009.  doi: 10.3417/2006176. Department of Geography, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, U.S.A. (on Neocupressus species)

Dongarra G., Varrica. D. & Sabatino, 2005. Occurence of platinum, palladium and gold in pine needles of Pinus pinça L. from the city of Palermo (Italy). Appi. Gcochcm. 18. 109-116. Cited in  Cenci R.M., Barbante C., Lintelmann J., Capodoglio C., Cattaneo G. & Zanvettore.  M., Transetti Autostradali: Elementi in Traccia E Contaminanti Organici (IPA) Valutati Mediante Muschi e Suoli Superficiali. Estratto da: Bollettino della Societa Italiana della Scienza del Suolo. Vol. 54, 2005 - No 1-2.

Duke James A., Duke Peggy-Ann K. & Ducellie Judith L. 2007, Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible. CRC Press. 528 pages. Multilingual

Earle Christopher J., 2009, The Gymnosperm Database. URL: (Page updated on 2009.04.19).   Taxonomy, Multilingual  *****

Eckenwalder  James E. , 2009,  Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference‎ - Science. Timber Press. (720 pages).

ЭДСР, 2009 -2010, Энциклопедия декоративных садовых растений (ЭДСР), ОБЩИЙ СПИСОК ДЕКОРАТИВНЫХ САДОВЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ. ХВОЙНЫЕ РАСТЕНИЯ - Латинское название. (Encyclopedia of Ornamental Garden Plants. Conifers. Index of Latin names).  < >. Russian *****

Faried Nawaz, 2009, Web-based Urdu Transliteration. < >.  Urdu transliterator (not for translations).

Farjon, A. 1990. Pinaceae: Drawings and descriptions of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Pseudolarix, Keteleeria, Nothotsuga, Tsuga, Cathaya, Pseudotsuga, Larix and Picea. Regnum Veg. 121. (Pinaceae) 157.

Farjon, Aljos,  1998,  World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. Richmond, U.K.: Royal Botanical Gardens - Kew.

Farjon, Aljos, 2005. A monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens - Kew. ISBN 1842460684.

Flora Europaea, 2009,  Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK. (FE)

Flora of China, 1999,  Pinus Linnaeus. < >.  Chinese 

Frankis Michael P. , 2002,  Pinus subgenus Strobus Cone Collection, Arboretum de Villardebelle.  < >.  *****

Google Language Tools . This page contains several translation services. One can enter either a word, a text, or a URL. Useful for anyone pursuing links on non-English pages, and may also be helpful to non-English speakers using the Gymnosperm Database. < >.   Multilingual

Google Translate , 2009 - 2010. This is an ongoing project of the "Wiki" kind covering 43 + interactive languages. < >.  Multilingual
Results are disappointing for some languages but more language pairs are available than on Yahoo! Babel Fish. This is a work in progress so it is bound to get better.

Gotfredsen Erik, 2009, Liber Herbarum II, The incomplete reference-guide to Herbal medicine.
< >.  Multilingual

Grandtner Miroslav M., 1997 - 2008, WORLD DICTIONARY OF TREES. Wood and Forest Sciences Department, Faculty of Forestry and Geomatics, Laval University, Quebec, Canada. < >.   Multilingual 

Grandtner Miroslav M. , 2005, Elsevier's Dictionary Of Trees: Volume 1: North America. (Hardcover - 2005-06-06). English, French, Spanish.

Griffith Chuck, 1996 - 2005. Dictionary of Botanical Epithets. release 1.0. < >. Botanical Latin

Grissino-Mayer Henri D. & Kaennel Dobbertin Michèle 2003 - 2004,  Dendrochonology Species Database, Section Forest Ecosystems and Ecological Risks & Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL, Switzerland. < >.

Hải Thượng Lãn Ông, 2000 - 2010,  VIỆN THÔNG TIN - THƯ VIỆN Y HỌC TRUNG ƯƠNG.  Lê Thánh Tông - Hà Nội - Việt Nam. < >.  Latin index / search : < >.  Vietnamese

Helardot Jean Louis2004,  Arbres : Epiceas (Picea), Erables (Acer), Pins (Pinus) et Sapins (Abies).  < >.   Multilingual

I. E. S. Pinguela,  2004,  Cientifico, Gallego, Castellano, Portugués Index.   < >. Portuguese

Imboden Paul , 2005-2010, Arbores. Dr. PI bloobook - a weblexicon for animals, plants and other species of this world.  Dr. PI Bioconsulting, Switzerland.  < >.   Multilingual
One of the best online electronic books I have come across, combining serious data and interective spider searches.

, 2006 - 2010, Armenian <-> English Online Translations. SEUA staff & ISMA staff. With financial assistance of the Government of the Republic of Armenia. < >.  Armenian

, 2009, Centra za razvoj ekološke svesti. Drvenaste biljke Srbije (Drveće, žbunje, drvenaste biljke). < >.  Serbian

Dora & Kristinsson Hordur. 2001. "Icelandic plant names" in Orðabanki  Íslenskrar málstöðvar. Icelandic Word Bank (multilingual tool sponsored by the LangTec project of the Icelandic Ministry of Education, Science and Culture).  <>.  Icelandic language /   Multilingual

Jardim Botânico da UTAD, 2007 ,  Lista de Espécies Jardim Botânico.
< >.  Portuguese

Jardim Botânico da UTAD, 2007 ,   Flora Digital de Portugal. < >. Portuguese

Jolanta Kujawa-Pawlaczyk and Paweł Pawlaczyk, 2000. Rośliny naczyniowe stwierdzone w Drawieńskim Parku Narodowym i w jego sąsiedztwie. Vascular plants of Drawa National park and its neighbourhood.  Compiled  30.01.2000.  <  > .  Polish

Karavla Josip (Mr. sc.), 2009,  Karavla Rječnik Bilja. Dendrologija Hortikultura Botanika (Dictionary of Plants - Botany Horticulture Dendrology). Electronic version.
< >.  Croatian - English

Kojian Raffi, 2009,  Քո Շրջապատի Ծառերը  (Armeniapedia - Armenian Plant Names). < > after ? in the URL add :  title=Քո_Շրջապատի_Ծառերը.  Armenian

2003 - 2010.  Korean Plant Names Index. Korea Forest Service. Pinaceae.
< >.   Korean

Kurowscy L.G. 2010, Lucjan i Grzegorz Kurowscy Firmie (Nursery). Online Catalogue - Coniferous plants. < >. Polish

Kuzmic Tomislav, 2005-2009.  EUdict (European dictionary). < >.   Multilingual

Lehmann Lutz, 2009,  Lao Tree Seed Project, SPECIES MONOGRAPH NO. 28, Sponsored by  the National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute (NAFRI) & Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). Nam Souang Forest Research Centre, Naxaythong District, Vientiane Municipality, Lao P.D.R. Lao

LePage Ben A. , Williams Christopher James , Hong Yang (Editors). 2005. The geobiology and ecology of Metasequoia. Springer.

Little, D.P., A.E. Schwarzbach, R.P. Adams, & C.-F. Hsieh. 2004. The Circumscription and Phylogenetic Relationships of Callitropsis and the Newly Described Genus Xanthocyparis (Cupressaceae). American Journal of Botany 91(11): 1872-1881.

Lintermann und Deussen GbR, 2004,  XfrogPlants, USA Conifers Library. (Chinese version) , Version 2.0.
 < >. Chinese

LIU Yan-Ju *, WANG Yu-Fei * &  LI Cheng-Sen* , 2010, (*Dept. of Palaeobotany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China). Studies on fossil Metasequoia from north-east China and their taxonomic implications. Volume 130 Issue 3, Pages 267 - 297. Published Online: 28 Jun 2008. Botanical Journal of  The Linnean Society of London.

Lystigarður Akureyrar, 2005, Hortus Botanicus Akureyrensis. Icelandic Flora. Akureyri's botanical gardens. < >.  Icelandic

Madau Gian Paolo, 2008, "La Flora della Sardegna". < >.  Italian, Sardenian

Magini E. & Ammannati R. - Sulla stima del tasso di autofecondazione in Pinus pinca L. attraverso la frequenza di piante con pinoli premici. XXXVIII. (1989). Pag. 133.

Martin Evan, 2009, Web-based Arabic Transliteration. < >.  Arabic transliterator (not for translations).

MDBG,  2009, Chinese - English Dictionary. < >. Chinese 

Metafro-Infosys, 2009, Tervuren Xylarium Wood Database, Tervuren Wood Collection database of the Royal Museum for Central Africa.  < >.  Multilingual

מורפיקס  (Morfix™),  2000 - 2010, Melingo Ltd. Online Hebrew - English Dictionary.  < >. ***** Hebrew.

Munnik Paul, 2008, Namen van naaldhout. Inleiding:   Plantaardigheden - Netherlands.
< >. Dutch

Natural Resources Canada, 2007 - 2009.  Canada Forest Service. Species Checklists. Pinaceae pine Family. < >. Botanical synonymy.

Okeyo, J.M., 2008. Podocarpus latifolius (Thunb.) R.Br. ex Mirb. In: Louppe, D., Oteng-Amoako, A.A. & Brink, M. (Editors). Prota 7(1): Timbers/Bois d’œuvre 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.

oNLINE 植物アルバム  2002 - 2010, Online Botanical Database, Miyakyo University - Japan.  < >. Japanese.

Panagiotis Vasilakos, ΦΥΤΩΡΙΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΑΚΟΣ  Vasilakos' Nursery Gardens. < >. Greek language

PAKTRANSLATIONS, 2010, Pakistan's First Machine Translation Portal.  < >. Urdu (translation and transliteration)

Platts John T. 1884, A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English. London. 1259 pp.
Oxford University Press. 0-19-864309-8. (Data conversion and presentation sponsored by the University of Chicago, the University of Michigan, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison with support from the U.S. Department of Education and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Data updated October 2006. < >. Arabic, Urdu, Devanagari (Hindi).

ポンニタイ, 2010,  コニファー (針葉樹, 球果植物) のデータベース (Conifer Database).
< >.  Japanese

Real Jardín Botánico, 2006 - 2008, Anthos Project - Sistema de información sobre las plantas de España. Real Jardín Botánico (Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Fundación Biodiversidad (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente), Centro Técnico de Infórmática - CSIC. < >. Catalan, Portuguese, Spanish

Schroeter A.I., Panasiuk V.A. & Bykov V.A. (Editor), 1999, Dictionary of Plant Names, Koeltz Scientific Books, Germany. Russian

Short David, 2001, Specialist Dictionary - Trees, Bushes & Shrubs. Latin, Czech, English, German, and Slovakian Table. < >.   Multilingual

Simonović Dragutin, 1959, Botanički rečnik - imena biljaka; Naučno delo, Izdavačka ustanova srpske akademije nauka, Beograd.  Serbian

Smithsonian Institute, 2003 - 2010,  A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Volume 45: 1-590. 2003. National Museum of Natural History. Dept. of Botany. < >.  Burmese

Spohn Roland (Dr.), 2002, Botanik-Dia-Archiv, Deutschland. A photo archive with comprehensive indexes in Latin and German.  < >.  German

Tartu Ülikool, 1995 - 2010, Eestikeelsete taimenimede andmebaas (Index of Estonian Plant Names). University of Tartu - Estonia.
< >. Estonian

Thingnam Girija et al. 2008, Flowers of India. Botanical and vernacular indexes, photograph database. <, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu

Thomson, Lex A.J.  2006. Agathis macrophylla (Pacific kauri), ver. 1.2 (April 2006). In: Elevitch, C.R. (ed.). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Hōlualoa, Hawai‘i. < >.

Translit.CC, 2010, Translit RU/EN - Russian-English Transliteration. TRANSLIT.CC is a free online Russian-English transliterator and Spell Checker.  < >.   Russian Transliterator

TranStar, 2010, Polish - English online translator.  < >.  Polish

U. AUNG DIN, L'utilisation des pins dans les régions tropicales. Division des Forêts de la FAO
< >.

U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, et al.  2008,  Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance & Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database. Staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning). Myanmar (Burma). < >.  Burmese

Ulmer Eugen, 2006, Verlag (Publisher): Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart,  Der PPP-Index Online - Pflanzeneinkaufsführer Für Europa. < >.  German.

(Latin-Polish Dictionary. Dendroflora Arboretum, Wojslawice Botanical Garden, University of Wroclaw).
< >. Polish

USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: (03 December 2009).   Taxonomy, Multilingual in parts

USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: (20 February 2010)

Vidaković Mirko  & Soljan Maja , 1991, Conifers: morphology and variation‎. Technology & Engineering. (754 pages).

Yahoo! Inc. 2010, Yahoo! Babel Fish Translation. < >. Multilingual
Handles far less (14) language (preset) pairs than Google Translate but the results are generally more accurate.

Younghong "Hong" Cho, 2005 - 2009,  Hong's Hangul Conversion Tools  [Korean Transliteration Tools]. < >. Korean Transliterator

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Date created: 05 / 11 / 2009
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Last modified: 30 / 04 / 2010
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