Sorting Azadirachta names

Species on this page ( A = names approved by most authorities, s = approved as synonyms) :




Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) M. Jacobs

SYNONYM(S) : Azadirachta integrifolia Merr., Melia excelsa Jack

CHINESE : Awaiting feedback.

ENGLISH : Marrango tree, Philippines neem tree, Vietnamese neem tree.

FRENCH : Margosier du Vietnam, Margosier d'Indonésie, Margosier des Philippines.

MALAY : Ranggu.

THAI : Sadao chang, Sadao thiam.


Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

SYNONYM(S) : Antelaea azadirachta (L.) Adelb., Antelaea javanica Gaertn., Melia azadirachta L., Melia indica (A. Juss.) Brandis

ARABIC :    ازادوخت     Azâdirakht, Margosa,    النيم    Nim (Neem),  Shagarah hhurrah, Sherish (Shereesh),    زنزلخت    Zanzalakht,   الاسم العلمي   .

ASSAMESE :   Mahaneem,   নীম Neem নিম  Nim,  নিমগছ   Nimgos.

BENGALI : Bim,  নিম  Nim, নিম গাছ  (Nima gācha) Nimgach (tree), নিমপাতা  Nim pātā (leaf).

BURMESE : Tamaka, Tamar.

CHINESE : Lian shu, Ku lian, Lian zao zi, Yin du lian shu (Taiwan).

ENGLISH : Bead tree, Burmese neem tree, Chinaberry, Geed hindi (Somalia), Indian cedar, Indian-lilac, Margosa, Margosa tree, Neem, Neem tree, Nimtree.

FRENCH : Azadirachta de l'Inde, Huile de neem (product), Lilas du Japon (Réunion Island), Lilas de Perse (Réunion Island), Lilas des Indes, Neem des Indes, Nim des Indes, Margosier, Margosier de Birmanie, Margosier du Bangladesh.  

GERMAN : Niembaum, Nimbaum.

GUJARATI :  ધનુજઝાડ Dhanujhada, Limba, લીમદો  Limbo.

HEBREW  :  אזדרכת .

HINDI : Balnimb,  नीम Neem, Nim, निम्ब  Nimb, Nind.

ITALIAN : Albero dei paternostri, Albero della pazienza, Azadarac, Lilacco delle Indie, Sicomoro alato.

KANNADA : Bevinmar, ಬೇವು  Bevu, Turakabevu.

KHMER :  Sdao.

MALAY : Mambu, Mind (Indonesia), Sadu.

MALAYALAM :  ആര്യവേപ്പു്   Arya veppu, Ariyaveppu, വേപ്പ്  Veppu.

MARATHI :  कडूलिंब  Kadu limba, कडूनिंब Kadu nimba, Nimbay.


ORIYA :  Nimba.

PERSIAN : Azad dirakht.

PUNJABI :  ਨਿੱਮ  Nimm.

SANSKRIT : Nimba, Nimbac, निम्बक  Nimbak, Nimbaka, Pakvakrita, पिचुमर्द  Pichumarda.

SINHALESE : Kohomba .

SPANISH :  Paraiso.

SWAHILI : Mkilifi, Muarubaini, Mwarubaini kamili.

TAMIL :  Sengumaru, Vepa,  வேம்பு  Vembu, வேப்பை Veppai.

TELUGU :    Bevu,  వెంపు Vempu,  వెపా Vepa, వేప Vepa, వేపు Vepu.

THAI : Cha-tang, Khwinin (Kwinin), Sadao, Sadao India.

TURKISH : Azadiraht, Tesbih ağaçı , Zehri zemin.

URDU :    نيم  Neem (Nim).


YORUBA : Afoforo oyimbo.

There is much confusion with the vernacular for Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and  Melia azedarach L. in many languages. Both plants are from India, both are used in medical remedies. Indian names also have anomalies: the Assamese "Mahaneem" is matched to  Azadirachta indica A. Juss. while the Hindi "Mahanimb" is used for Melia azedarach L.
The taxonomy may also contribute or add to the confusion: Antelaea javanica Gaertn. is a synonym attributed to both species, although deemed "unresolved" by the 'The PlantList".  Also the fact that Azadirachta indica A. Juss. has a synonym called Melia azadirachta L. can easily lead non botanists to complete confusion.

Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. indica


All names under the species above apply to this variety.


Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton

SYNONYM(S) : Azadirachta siamensis A. Juss.

CHINESE : Gan lian shu.

ENGLISH : Edible neem, Sweet neem.

FRENCH : Margosier de Siam.

THAI : Kadao, Sadao, Saliam.


 Currently considered as a synonym of A. indica. May turn out to be a Thai cultivar in the future.



Porcher Michel H. et al. 1995 - 2020, Sorting Azadirachta Names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database - A Work in Progress. Published on line by The University of Melbourne. < > (2012).

General Bibliography


Complementary / Specific


EURODICAUTOM, On-line Technical Dictionary in 12 languages provided by the European Commission < >.

Hanelt Peter et al. , 2001, Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops, Vol. 6. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (Editors), First English Edition, Springer.

IPK Gatersleben, 2002, Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. < >.

IPNI, 2003, International Plant Name Index. Online Database. < >.

Mabberley D.J. 1997, The Plant-Book : a Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants, 2d Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

McGuffin Michael et al. 2000, Herbs of Commerce, American Herbal Products Association. 2d Edition.

Quattrocchi Umberto, 2000, CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names : Common names, Scientific names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. Volume 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. ; London.

Smitinand Tem, 2001, Thai Plant Names - Revised Edition by The Forest Herbarium - Royal Forest Department. Bangkok. Thailand.

USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: (19 January 2004).

W. A. C. 2004, Botanic Nomenclature Database, World Agroforestry Centre. International Centre for Research in Agroforestry. < >.

Wang Zongxun et al. 1996, A New Latin, Chinese, English Botanical Nomenclature. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany. Aviation Industry Publisher, Beijing.

Wiersema J. H. & León B. 1999, World Economic Plants : a Standard Reference. CRC Press LLC.

Xie Zongwa & Yu Youqin (Editors), 1996, Materia Medica, Chinese Terminology, Vol. 1, Renminweisheng Publishing House Beijing, China. (Latin with authority names and Chinese-simplified, text in Chinese).


Contributors to this page (Personal communication) : In progress.


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Date created: 01 / 01 / 2004
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Last modified: 28 / 05 / 2012
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