Sorting Prunus names


The original file Prunus.html is now a cross-index of all Prunus & related species in our database records which have been split into 3 smaller files. In addition we have separated the typical cultivars from the records to increase clarity. We are in the process of adding indexes in every language (on-going effort), especially those presenting handling difficulties with either databases or browsers, or any other electronic data handling device, or all of the above.



Prunus cross-index

Prunus records part 1 :

Padus racemosa (Lam.) C.K.Schneid. to Prunus crassipes Koidz.
Including common almonds, apricots, cherries

Prunus records part 2 :

Prunus dasycarpa Ehrh. to Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. platycarpa Decne.
Including plums, peaches, nectarines, lesser-known cherries and apricots

Prunus records part 3 :

Prunus prostrata Labill. to Prunus zippeliana Miq. var. crassistyla (Card.) J.E. Vid.
Including lesser-known cherries and apricots



Prunus - Foreign language - indexes

Czech index (requires Unicode-enabled browser)

Japanese index

Persian index (requires Unicode-enabled browser)

Polish index (requires Unicode-enabled browser)

Korean index (requires Unicode-enabled browser)



Typical cultivars


NOTES - Some points requiring clarification







General Bibliography


Complementary / Specific

(see also language-specific references under each foreign language index)


Bedevian A. K. 1936, Illustrated Polyglottic Dictionary of Plant Nmaes, Argus & Papazian Presses, Cairo. (Latin, Arabic, Armenian, English, French, German, Italian, Turkish).

Beekman Boerhave W. 1966, Elsevier's Wood Dictionary in Seven Languages, Volume 1. Elsevier Publishing Company. (Latin, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish).

Breen Jim Prof., 1994 - 1997 KANJI On-line Dictionary. (Japanese-hiragana-kanji-katakana-romaji).

Chin-Sung Chang et al. 2000, Laboratory of Natural Environment Conservation 2000, National Arboretum of Korea.
< >. 
Korean - English
< >. 
Korean - Latin.

Chinese Academy of Forestry, 1996, Network Center for Chinese Academy of Forestry ,Wanshou Shan, Beijing, P.R. China .   < >.

Clason W. E. 1989, Elsevier's Dictionary of Wild and Cultivated Plants, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Latin (no authority name), Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish.

Compiling Group 1981, A Classified and Illustrated Chinese - English Dictionary, Guangzhou Institute of Foreign Languages, Guangdong People's Publishing House. (Chinese-simplified, English, Latin).

Creber G. & Wrobel M. 1996, Elsevier's Dictionary of Plant Names, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Latin (no authority name), English, French, German, Italian.

DAEGU HAANY  UNIVERSITY, 1999-2003,  Flora of Korea, Ecolab. DAEGU HAANY  UNIVERSITY USER's Home.
< > Home page.
< >  Latin - Korean index.
< > Family names of Korean plants,
Latin - Korean.
< >
Korean - Latin.

ECHO-EURODICAUTOM, On-line Technical Dictionary in 11 languages provided by Information Market Europe, served by The University of Frankfurt, maintained by Jens Kurlanda. (Latin, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish).

Erik Sumiharu Hagiwara-Nagata , 2000, Flowering Cherry . HaNaScape featured plants. < >.

EURODICAUTOM, On-line Technical Dictionary in 12 languages provided by the European Commission < >.

EUTERPE, European Parliament, TRADOS MultiTerm Web Interface in 12 languages. (Latin, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish).

FLORA EUROPAEA, 1998, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Inverleith Row, Edinburgh, EH3 5LR, United Kingdom. (Latin with authority names).

Friedl Jeffrey, 1994 - 1997, Japanese <-> English On-line Dictionary. (Japanese-hiragana-kanji-katakana-romaji).

Foko J. S. Kim, 2000, Flora of Korea. < >. (Korean, Latin with authority names). "Cool" flower displays.

G.A.T.A, 2004, Prunus names. Gyeongsangbuk do Agricultural Technology Administration.
< >. 
< > Page on Prunus.

Hanelt Peter et al. , 2001, Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (Editors), First English Edition, Springer.

Hong Kong Herbarium, 1978, Check List of Hong Kong Plants, Agriculture & Fisheries Department Bulletin n°1. (Chinese-traditional, Latin with authority names).

InterEDEN Botanic Garden Plant Database, 2000, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University.
< >

InterSoft s.r.o., 1997, LangSoft Multilingual Dictionary.  < >. Czech - English in particular. ***

IPK Gatersleben, 2002, Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. < >.

IPNI, 2003, International Plant Name Index. Online Database. < >., Vancouver Sakura Diary. Cherry Tree Species in Vancouver. < >. A number of photos and descriptions.

Kabsik Park, 1998 - 2004, Korean-English-Korean Dictionary. Hosted by EC21 Global B@B e-marketplace - Online Trade Directory. < >. One of the best, allows multiwords entries. Unicode-enabled computer required.

Korean online, 2004, Online English to Korean Dictionary  & Korean to English Dictionary. < >. One of the best, allows multiwords entries. Unicode-enabled computer required.

Kress Henriette, 1994 - 1998, On Line Plant Name Database. English, Finnish, French, German, Latin (no authority name), Swedish.

Linder Peter, 1999, Japanska träd och buskar för Sverige, Japanska lignoser. Namnlista. Del 5 av 7 - Symplocos tanakae, Studentdataservice (STUDDS). < >.

Macura P. 1982, Elsevier's Dictionary of Botany, II General Terms, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. English, French, German, Russian.

Mabberley D.J. 1997, The Plant-Book : a Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants, 2d Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Motosuke Suzuki, 1970, Practical Dictionary of Agricultural English, Noogyootosho Co. Ltd. Tokyo. (English, Japanese-kanji, Japanese-katakana).

National Horticultural Research Institute, 2004, Korea. Fruits.  < >. <  >. Page on Prunus.

Okrasné dreviny, 2004,  Obsáhlou databázi dÞevin s mojností vybjeru dle zvolenych vlastností. Seznam Evropského sortimentu listnatych okrasnych drevin : Prunus - Rhamnella < >. (130 + Prunus names) see large table bottom this page < >  Index of all lists (Species - sorted). < > Huge glossary Latin - Czech ***** (this is the number 1 Czech database - Apologies for some of the spelling - very font dependant).

Pham-hoang Ho, 1992, An Illustrated Flora of Vietnam.(Latin with authority names, French, English, Vietnamese, text in Vietnamese, some in English).

Shin Hyun-Tak, 1998 - 2004, Tree names. Laboratory of Landscape Plants and Ecology (LLPE).
< >.

Shtjepanikova Hedvika , Ponijil Petr et al. 2004, Podzamecka zahrada v Kromeriji.
< >. Indexes in Latin, English, German, Czech, Photos, ID cards.

SK Forest, 2003, SK Forest Production.  Korean, English, Latin index  < >.  < >. Small ID cards with thumbnail photo and Family name in Korean.

Smitinand Tem, 2001, Thai Plant Names - Revised Edition by The Forest Herbarium - Royal Forest Department. Bangkok. Thailand.

Snowarski Marek 2002 - 2003, Atlas roslin. Lista roslin chronionych. (Vascular plants of Poland). Prunus.
< >.
< >  Index all plants.
< > Prunus pages.  (Polish)

Solomon Jim, 1998, W3TROPICOS Missouri Botanical Garden's VAST (VAScular Tropicos) nomenclatural database and associated authority files. (Latin with authority names).

Sugahara Tatsuyuki et al. 1992, New Edition of an Illustrated Encyclopedia of Japanese Ingredients, Kenpakusha. (Latin with authority names, Japanese-hiragana, Japanese-katakana , Japanese-kanji, text in Japanese).

Suranant Subhadrabandhu, 1991. In Verheij E.W.M. & Coronel R.E. (Editors), Plant Resources of South-East Asia, N°2. Edible Fruits and Nuts. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. pp 262 - 266.

Tanaka Tyôzaburô, 1976, Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World, Edited by Sasuke Nakao, Keigaku Publishing Co. Tokyo, Japan. (Latin with authority names, English, French, German, Hindi, Japanese-romaji).

Tiscali Dictionary, 2004, Online Multilingual Dictionary / Translator. < > Czech - English translator  in particular.

Vaucher H. 1986, Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees and Shrubs, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Latin (with authority names), English, French, German, Italian.

Wang Zongxun et al. 1996, A New Latin, Chinese, English Botanical Nomenclature. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany. Aviation Industry Publisher, Beijing.

Webster A.D. & Looney N.E. (Editors), 1996, Cherries : Crop Physiology, Production and Uses, CAB International. (cultivar names and descriptions sorted per country).

Wiersema John H. Dr, 1997, USDA-ARS GRIN database. (A number of languages, some romanised, Latin with authority names).

Wiersema J. H. & León B. 1999, World Economic Plants : a Standard Reference. CRC Press LLC.

Xie Zongwa & Yu Youqin (Editors), 1996, Materia Medica, Chinese Terminology, Vol. 1, Renminweisheng Publishing House Beijing, China. (Latin with authority names and Chinese-simplified, text in Chinese).

Yamabayashi, 2004, Identification of korean woods-Gymnospermae. < >.

Yamamoto Atsushi, 1997 - 2004, Flowering trees. < >. (Latin, Japanese-kanji-hiragana).

Yasue (Prof.), 2004, Prunus Names, Online Plant Album, Miyagi University of Education, Japan. < >(Home page), < > Prunus (Latin, Japanese-katakana).



Contributors to these pages (Personal communication) : Jagadish Timsina (Nepalese), Luc Balemans (Dutch), Martin Boeg (Danish), Michelle Hall (Japanese), Chuck Griffith (Botanical Latin), W.R. Okie (French cultivars).




Avinash Chopde, 1994 - 1998, ITRANS transliteration package to download or use on-line. Applies to most main languages from India. Links to very useful transliteration tables. < >. Extremely valuable tool used to generate Indian & Nepalese names.

Baumschule Brenninger, 2003, Katalog 2003, Germany.
Photographs of sour cherry cultivars  < >,
Photographs of sweet cherry cultivars  < >,
Photographs of plum cultivars  < >. (German).

Arbez Emmanuel, 2003, Pommiers et Arbres Fruitiers Anciens. Descriptions of plum trees (in French) and cultivars (extensive list) in France at : < >.

Erik Sumiharu Hagiwara-Nagata , 2000, HaNaScape Featured plants - Flowering Cherry . < >. Description of a number of Japanese ornamental cultivars (in English).

Henriette Kress , 2004, Photo Gallery of Prunus (thumbnails) < >. About a dozen species of Prunus photographs with their botanical names and common names in several European languages., Vancouver Sakura Diary. Cherry Tree Species in Vancouver. < >. A number of photos and descriptions.

Ministry Of Culture & Tourism Republic of Korea, 2001, < >.  NEW REFORMS for Korean Romanization.

Pavel Sekerka, 2004, Fotogalerie - Prunus. Praîska Botanická Zahrada. < >. Nice small collection of flowers covering 10 species and cultivars (close-up).

Useful links for definitions of: Almonds, Apricots, and Cherries can be found in the Epicurious Dictionary
< >.




Taxonomists use complicated botanical names such as "Prunus domestica L. subsp. rotunda Werneck var. claudiana (Poiret) Werneck". The trade on the other hand tends to simplify nomenclature to the extreme and names such as Prunus domestica 'Purple Gage' or even Prunus 'Purple Gage' are commonly found in catalogues. Sometimes this may carry the whole picture but often the cultivar name is either ambiguous or misleading. Omitting the specific epithet makes of course the identification task harder but it is not always clear what that should be, especially when dealing with hybrids.
A compromise is to introduce a cultivar group name as in this example :
Prunus domestica L. (Reine Claude Group) 'Purple Gage'. No doubt debate will rage about which language should be used for the group name. We think it should be primarily Latin in order to maintain some consistancy by preserving the existing vocabulary. When botanical Latin fails, English may be used for plants of international repute and any other language for plants of restricted distribution or precise origin. The Japanese maples, Japanese bamboos and Chinese cabbages come to mind for example.



Which botanical names fit those Oo shima zakura & Sato zakura.

There are some intricate relationships between Prunus lannesiana (Carrière) Wilson, Prunus sargentii Rehder, Prunus serrulata Lindl., Prunus speciosa (Koidz.) Nakai, and their subspecific taxa. Help would be welcome.





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Date created: 31 / 03 / 1999
Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow
Last modified: 26 / 06 / 2004
Access: No restriction
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