Sorting Citrus names


The original file Citrus.html  has now a cross-index of all Citrus & related species in our database records (below). In 2012 we will endeavour to update the cross index, taking into consideration the new names of the last few years.  We are in the process of adding indexes in every language (on-going effort), especially those presenting handling difficulties with either databases or browsers, or any other electronic data handling device, or all of the above. First on line are the names in the 12 main languages of India. This still presents even today, with all the computer aids such as translators, transliterators and dictionaries of all kinds, major challenges. The records are still split into 3 smaller files. All common names being matched with the respective botanical names (valid or not).

Citrus records part 1 :
Citrus alata
  to Citrus maxima 

Citrus records part 2 :
Citrus medica 
to Citrus yuko

Citrus records part 3 :
Hybrids & some relatives

Citrus cross-index


References for all Citrus

name of almost equal status in the current literature  =  current preferred name
synonym  ->  new name, usually current preferred name.
(END Citrus part 1)
  ( END Citrus part 2 ) 

name of almost equal status in the current literature  =  current preferred name
synonym  ->  new name, usually current preferred name.


"There is considerable controversy between different authorities as to the number of valid species within the genus Citrus. The main reasons are that citrus fruits have been grown by man for many centuries. Early descriptions lack precision so that origins and ranges of natural occurences are now uncertain. Hybridisation both between and within species occurs readily and the phenomena of apomixis and polyembryony are widespread in the genus. By these means nucellar mother tissue in the developing seed can develop into plants which exactly reproduce the female parent and enable both natural and artificial hybrids to reproduce themselves, that is they come true-to-type from seed. "   Donald McEwan Alexander, 1983, page 8.

There are several classifications of Citrus ranging from the most comprehensive (Tanaka's - 159 species) to the least useful (Scora (1975), Barrett and Rhodes (1976) who recognise only C. grandis, C. medica & C. reticulata. In between are Swingle's classification which is lacking details and efforts at reviewing older classifications, and lately Mabberley's reviews also limited and not covering the whole worldwide spectrum. For practical reasons we have basically kept to Tanaka's classification in order to make sense of the vernacular of most countries. Whenever possible we have given some synonymy based on some of the reviews, especially Mabberley's, because together with some Chinese scholars they appear to increasingly become the leading authorities on Citrus and they are having a marked influence on the Citrus taxonomy of the main species.
For a correspondance in the 2 main classifications Tanaka # Swingle we refer readers to either of the 2 references Jian-guo Xu or Citrus of the World  because not only do we find it hard to comprehende the Swingle classification in the absence of many subspecific taxa but we find the Swingle classification confusing. Mabberley's reviews appear to have been well integrated into the nomenclature on Jorma Koskinen's excellent web site Citrus pages. What really needs to be done is a total review of all the names of the world, both valid and invalid, as well as unresolved. There is a very good precedent established by D. R. Constantine in respect to Bananas : Constantine David R. , 2008,  An annotated list of the species of Ensete, Musa and Musella.  < >.

Most of the Asian names, Chinese and Japanese, added in the major update (2007) are transliterated from either original or commercially known names in other languages. They should add comprehension to Chinese or Japanese speakers as well as to people interested in those languages. A number of the original Japanese common names from which the botanical names were derived have also been added, even in the absence of any other name in any other language. This is to facilitate the comprehension of those strange botanical names sounding more Japanese than Latin such as Citrus omikanto.
These updates continue our theme started in 1999 with
"Chinese names of European fruit cultivars" except that this time the transliterations work in many directions.
A major review and updating of Indian names is in progress, starting in 2012.


Porcher Michel H. et al. 1995 - 2020, Sorting Citrus Names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database   (M.M.P.N.D - A Work in Progress. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
< > (2012).

General Bibliography
Specific & complementary

Alexander D. McE. (Donald McEwan), 1983, Some Citrus Species and Varieties in Australia, Photographs by E. A. Lawton, Division of Horticultural Research, C.S.I.R.O. Research Organization, Australia.

Barrett H.C. & Rhodes A.M. 1976, A numerical Taxonomic Study of Affinity Relationships in Cultivated Citrus and its Close Relatives. Syst. Bot. 1 (2): 105-136.

Bedevian A. K. 1936, Illustrated Polyglottic Dictionary of Plant Nmaes, Argus & Papazian Presses, Cairo. (Latin, Arabic, Armenian, English, French, German, Italian, Turkish).

Bhattacharya S.C. & Dutta S. 1956, Classification of Citrus Fruits of Assam. Sci. Monogr. 20:1-110. I.C.A.R. New Delhi.

Bhattacharya & Dutta 1956; Singh 1977; Singh & Chadha 1993. In H.P. Singh's Genetic Diversity, Breeding and Utilization of Citrus Fruits. PART III: PGR Conservation and Use - Germplasm introduction, exchange, evaluation, improvement, conservation and utilization. Tropical Fruits in Asia - Diversity, Maintenance, Conservation and Use. IPGRI . < >.

Birmingham Erika, 1998, Australian Native Citrus, The Australian New Crops Newsletter, Issue 10, July 1998, The University of Queensland.

Bois Désiré (Prof.), 1928, Les plantes alimentaires chez tous les peuples et à travers les âges. Vol. II, Phanérogames fruitières, Éditions Lechevallier, Paris.

Breen Jim Prof., 1994 - 1998 KANJI On-line Dictionary. (Japanese-hiragana-kanji-katakana-romaji).

Clason W. E. 1989, Elsevier's Dictionary of Wild and Cultivated Plants, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Latin (no authority name), Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish.

Collective work, 2007, Sitrushakemisto, Sitrussivut.  < >.

Cottin R. 1997, Citrus of the World - A Citrus Directory Version 1, January 1997, SRA INRA - CIRAD. France. (Some romanised languages, French, Latin with authority names).

Compiling Group 1981, A Classified and Illustrated Chinese - English Dictionary, Guangzhou Institute of Foreign Languages, Guangdong People's Publishing House. (Chinese-simplified, English, Latin).

Creber G. & Wrobel M. 1996, Elsevier's Dictionary of Plant Names, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Latin (no authority name), English, French, German, Italian.

ECHO-EURODICAUTOM, On-line Technical Dictionary in 11 languages provided by Information Market Europe, served by The University of Frankfurt, maintained by Jens Kurlanda. (Latin, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish).

EUTERPE, European Parliament, TRADOS MultiTerm Web Interface in 12 languages. (Latin, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish).

FLORA EUROPAEA, 1998, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Inverleith Row, Edinburgh, EH3 5LR, United Kingdom. (Latin with authority names).

Friedl Jeffrey, 1994 - 1998, Japanese <-> English On-line Dictionary. (Japanese-hiragana-kanji-katakana-romaji).

Hong Kong Herbarium, 1978, Check List of Hong Kong Plants, Agriculture & Fisheries Department Bulletin n°1. (Chinese-traditional, Latin with authority names).

Jorma Koskinen, 2006 - 2011, Citrus Pages.  < >.

Kress Henriette, 1994 - 1998, On Line Plant Name Databse. English, Finnish, French, German, Latin (no authority name), Swedish.

Macura P. 1982, Elsevier's Dictionary of Botany, II General Terms, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. English, French, German, Russian.

Madulid Domingo A. 1995, A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants, Bookmark Inc., Makati Metro Manila, Philippines.

Motosuke Suzuki, 1970, Practical Dictionary of Agricultural English, Noogyootosho Co. Ltd. Tokyo. (English, Japanese-kanji, Japanese-katakana).

Nijdam J. & De Jong A. (editors) et al. 1970, Elsevier's Dictionary of Horticulture in Nine Languages, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. The Netherlands. (Latin, Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish).


Pham-hoang Ho, 1992, An Illustrated Flora of Vietnam.(Latin with authority names, French, English, Vietnamese, text in Vietnamese, some in English).

Scora R.W. 1975, On the History and Origin of Citrus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102 (6): 369-375.

Seidenschwarz Franz, 1994, Plant World of the Philippines - An Illustrated Dictionary of Visayan Plant Names with their Scientific, Tagalog & English Equivalents. University of San Carlos, Cebu, Philippines.

Solomon Jim, 1998, W3TROPICOS Missouri Botanical Garden's VAST (VAScular Tropicos) nomenclatural database and associated authority files. (Latin with authority names).

SRA INRA - CIRAD , 1998, List of Cultivars, Corsica. France, Maintained by Cottin Roland. (Some romanised languages, French, Latin with authority names).

Sugahara Tatsuyuki et al. 1992, New Edition of an Illustrated Encyclopedia of Japanese Ingredients, Kenpakusha. (Latin with authority names, Japanese-hiragana, Japanese-katakana , Japanese-kanji, text in Japanese).

Swingle W.T. 1943, The Botany of Citrus and its Relatives of the Orange Sub-family. In Webber H.J. & Batchelor L.D. (eds), The Citrus Industry, University of California Press, Vol. 1 pp. 129 - 474.

Swingle W.T. & Reece P.C. 1967, The Botany of Citrus and its Wild Relatives. In The Citrus Industry Vol1 (rev). Reuther W., Webber H.J. & Bachelor L.D. (eds), University of California Press, pp. 190 - 430.

CHAPTER 3 -  The Botany of Citrus and Its Wild Relatives BY WALTER T. SWINGLE
Revised by Phillip C. Reece < >.
CHAPTER 4 - Horticultural Varieties of Citrus  BY ROBERT WILLARD HODGSON
< >. as complements to The Citrus Industry
Revised Edition, University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, based on above, 1967-1989 . < >.

Tanaka Tyôzaburô, 1976, Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World, Edited by Sasuke Nakao, Keigaku Publishing Co. Tokyo, Japan. (Latin with authority names, English, French, German, Hindi, Japanese-romaji).

USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: (04 Mars 2007).

van Wijk Gerth H.L. 1962, Originally Published in 1909, Reprinted Courtesy of the Dutch Academy in Harlem, A Dictionary of Plant - Names, Vol.1 Part 1, A. Asher & Co. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Vaucher H. 1986, Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees and Shrubs, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Latin (with authority names), English, French, German, Italian.

Wiersema John H. Dr, 1994 - 1998, USDA-ARS GRIN database. (A number of languages, some romanised, Latin with authority names).

Xie Zongwa & Yu Youqin (Editors), 1996, Materia Medica, Chinese Terminology, Vol. 1, Renminweisheng Publishing House Beijing, China. (Latin with authority names and Chinese-simplified, text in Chinese).

Xu Jian-guo , New Latin-Chinese-English-Japanese Plant Name of Common Citrus and Its Relatives.
< >.

Zhang Dianxiang (张奠湘) & Mabberley David J. 2008, CITRUS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 782. 1753.  柑橘属 gan ju shu. Flora of China 11: 90–96. 2008.  <  >.


Contributors to this page (Personal communication) : Akiko Mundy, Jagadish Timsina, Massimo Lazzari, Michelle Hall, Steffen Reichel, Takako Asaoka, Orarat Mongkolporn, Marc Vissers, Frank Schuller, Dieter J.E. Hach.


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Date created: 22 / 07 / 1997
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Last modified: 11 / 04 / 2012
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Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher,