Sorting Laccaria, Lepista & Lyophyllum Names



Species on this page :



Note on Tricholoma / Lyophyllum aggregatum

Laccaria amethystea (Bull.) Murr. (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Laccaria laccata (Scop. : Fr.) Cke. var. amethystina ((Huds.) Cke.) Rea

DANISH : Violet ametysthat.

DUTCH : Amethistzwam.

ENGLISH : Amethyst deceiver.

GERMAN : Amethystblauer Lackpilz.

SWEDISH : Ametistskivling.

Laccaria bicolor (Maire) P. Orton (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Laccaria proxima (Boud.) Pat. var. bicolor (Maire) Kuhn. & Romagn.

DUTCH : Heidefopzwam, Schubbige fopzwam, Tweekleurige fopzwam.

GERMAN : Bläuling.

SWEDISH : Stor laxskivling, Tvåfärgad laxskivling.

Laccaria laccata (Scop. : Fr.) Cke. (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Clitocybe laccata (Scop. : Fr.) Kummer

DANISH : Rød ametysthat.

DUTCH : Fopzwam.

ENGLISH : The deceiver.

FRENCH : Agaric laqué, Clitocybe laqué.

GERMAN : Fleischroter Lackpilz, Roter Lackpilz.

RUSSIAN : Lakovitsa rozovaya.

SPANISH : Hongo manzana (Mexico), Manzanilla (Mexico), Manzanita (Mexico), Tejamanilero (Mexico).

SWEDISH : Laxskivling.


Laccaria proxima (Boud.) Pat. (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Laccaria laccata (Scop. : Fr.) Cke. var. proxima (Boud.) Maire

Laccaria tortilis (Bolt.) Cke. (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Laccaria echinospora (Speg.) Sing., Clitocybe tortilis (Bolt.) Gill., Omphalina tortilis (Bolt.) S.F. Gray

Lepista fragrans (Sow. : Fr.) Harmaja (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Clitocybe fragrans (Sow. : Fr.) Kummer

DUTCH : Slanke anijstrechterzwam.

ENGLISH : Sweet-smelling clitocybe.

FRENCH : Clitocybe parfumé.

GERMAN : Dufttrichterling.

Lepista gilva (Pers. : Fr.) Pat. (inedible)

SYNONYM(S) : Clitocybe splendens (Pers. : Fr.) Gill., Clitocybe gilva (Pers. : Fr.) Kummer

DUTCH : Geelbruine trechterzwam.

GERMAN : Fahlgelber Trichterling.

SWEDISH : Droppfläckig trattskivling.

Lepista inversa (Scop. : Fr.) Pat. (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Clitocybe flaccida (Sow. : Fr.) Kummer, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. : Fr.) Quél., Lepista flaccida (Sow. : Fr.) Pat.

DUTCH : Roodbruine trechterzwam.

ENGLISH : Tawny funnel cap.

FRENCH : Clitocybe renversé.

GERMAN : Fuchsiger Trichterling.

Lepista luscina (Fr. : Fr.) Sing. (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Lepista panaeola (Fr.) Maire, Rhodopaxillus nimbatus (Batsch) Konrad & Maubl., Lepista panaeola (Fr.) Karsten, Rhodopaxillus panaeolus (Fr.) R. Maire, Tricholoma panaeolum (Fr.) Quél.

DUTCH : Vale schijnridderzwam.

FRENCH : Tricholome nuageux, Tricholome bigarré, Rhodopaxille bigarré.

GERMAN : Graubräunlicher Rötelritterling.

TAGALOG : Kabuteng madaling ma gbago ng ayos.

Lepista nuda (Bull. : Fr.) Cke. (edible **)

SYNONYM(S) : Tricholoma nudum (Bull. : Fr.) Kummer, Rhodopaxillus nudus (Bull. : Fr.) Maire, Tricholoma nudum (Bull.) Quélet

CHINESE : Luo kou mo, Zi ding xiang mo, Zi jing mo (medicinal name).

DANISH : Violet hekseringshat.

ENGLISH : Wood blewit, Naked mushroom.

FRENCH : Pied bleu des forêts.

ITALIAN : Tricoloma nudo.

JAPANESE : Murasaki shimeji, .

SPANISH : Pie violeta.

Lepista saeva (Fr.) P. Orton (edible **)

SYNONYM(S) : Tricholoma saevum (Fr.) Gill., Rhodopaxillus saevus (Fr.) Maire, Lepista personata (Fr.) Cooke, Tricholoma saevum (Fr.) Gillet, Tricholoma personatum (Fr. : Fr.) Kummer, Rhodopaxillus saevus (Fr.) Maire

CHINESE : Fen zi shiang gu ?.

DUTCH : Grote paarssteelridderzwam , Paarssteelschijnridderzwam.

ENGLISH : Field blewit, Blue leg.

FRENCH : Tricholome à pied bleu.

GERMAN : Lilastieliger Ritterling.

JAPANESE : Oo murasaki shimeji (Oh murasaki shimeji).

NORWEGIAN : Lillastilket ridderhatt.

SPANISH : Seta de vaca, Pie azul.

SWEDISH : Höstmusseron.

Lepista sordida (Fr.) Sing. (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Tricholoma sordidum (Fr.) Kummer, Rhodopaxillus sordidus (Fr.) Maire

DUTCH : Vaalpaarse schijnridderzwam, Vaalpaarse ridderzwam.

GERMAN : Lilagrauer Rötel - Ritterling, Fleischbrauner Rötel - Ritterling.

SWEDISH : Violmusseron.

Leucopaxillus giganteus (Sow. : Fr.) Sing. (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Clitocybe gigantea (Sow. : Fr.) Quél.

Lyophyllum aggregatum (Schaeff. ex Secr.) Kühner (comestible)

SYNONYM(S) : Clitocybe aggregata (Secr.) Gill, Tricholoma aggregatum (Schaeff. : Secr.) Gill., Clitocybe decastes Fr., Lyophyllum aggregatum (Schaeff. : Fr..) Kühner., Clitocybe multiceps Peck.

CHINESE : Zhan di jun ?, Yu jun ? Both names uncertain .

ENGLISH : Clustered tricholoma.

FRENCH : Tricholome en bouquet, Tricholome en agrégat, Clitocybe en agrégat, Lyophylle en agrégat.

GERMAN : Exzentrische Rasling, Frostrasling, Büschelritterling, Knäuelritterling.

ITALIAN : Agarico conglobato, Agarico cespitoso, Zonatti.

JAPANESE : , Hon shimeji, , Daikoku shimeji, Kabu shimeji, , Tama take, Shimeji ?

SPANISH : Girbola de bruch.

Lyophyllum amethystina (Fr.) Berk. & Br.


JAPANESE : , , Usu murasaki.

Lyophyllum carneum (Bull. : Fr.) Kühner & Romagn.

SYNONYM(S) : Calocybe carnea (Bull. : Fr.) Kühner, Tricholoma carneum (Bull. : Fr.) Kummer

DUTCH : Roze pronkridder, Roze riddertje.

ENGLISH : Flesh-colored tricholoma.

FRENCH : Tricholome couleur chair .

GERMAN : Fleischrosa Schönkopf.

SWEDISH : Rosenmusseron.

Lyophyllum cinerascens (Konr.) Konr. & Maubl.

JAPANESE : , Shaka shimeji.

Lyophyllum connatum (Schum. : Fr.) Sing. (inedible)

SYNONYM(S) : Clitocybe connata (Schum. : Fr.) Gill.

JAPANESE : Oshiroi shimeji.

Lyophyllum decastes (Fr. : Fr.) Sing. (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Clitocybe decastes (Fr. : Fr.) Kummer, Tricholoma aggregatum (Schaeff.) Constant. & Dufour

JAPANESE : Hatake shimeji.

SPANISH : Liofilio agregado.

Lyophyllum loricatum (Fr.) Kühn. (edible)

SYNONYM(S) : Tricholoma cartilagineum Bull. non Fr.

Lyophyllum semitale (Fr.) Kühner

SYNONYM(S) : Lyophyllum semitale (Secr.) Kühner

JAPANESE : , Sumizome shimeji .

Lyophyllum transforme (Britz.) Sing.

JAPANESE : Kakumino shimeji.

Lyophyllum ulmarium (Bull. : Fr.) Kühner (inedible)

SYNONYM(S) : Lyophyllum ulmarium (Secr.) Kühner, Pleurotus ulmarius (Bull. : Fr.) Quél.

JAPANESE : , Nire take, , Shiro tamogi take.

Note on Tricholoma / Lyophyllum aggregatum

Words of the type Tricholome agrégé (French) were encountered in the reputable references. I am not criticizing but merely pointing out a common problem encountered in plant nomenclature. Lexicographers can get carried away and succumb to the temptation to translate the botanical Latin of the scientific name into one or several languages. This works some of the time with some languages but not always. I am taking this opportunity to point out a good example of a case where it does not work. Please let me know when I am guilty of a similar offense. I am not apologising, as I mentioned earlier the temptation is too often irresistible.

The Latin word "aggregatum" means "aggregated", "clustered" or "bunched" in English, "grappolo" and "gruppo" come to mind in Italian, "Büschel" in German, "agrupar" & "agregado" may fit the purpose in Spanish and "en bouquet", "aggloméré" or "groupé" in French, "agrégé " on the other hand has a totally different common meaning related to the world of academia. In French the fungus Lyophyllum aggregatum is more likely to be named as "Tricholome en agrégat" or "Tricholome en bouquet". This form is more common in French plant names than the combination name + adjective commonly encountered in English. In conclusion I would propose ENGLISH : Clustered tricholoma and FRENCH : Tricholome en agrégat, Tricholome en bouquet. One can then argue that these names are not "common" because they are not commonly used. I would maintain that they have their place in such a glossary because they truely are of the respective languages. If "agrégé " is commonly used it should be pointed out that it is not "correct" by most other criteria.



Bedevian A. K. 1936, Illustrated Polyglottic Dictionary of Plant Nmaes, Argus & Papazian Presses, Cairo. (Latin, Arabic, Armenian, English, French, German, Italian, Turkish).

Breen Jim Prof. 1998, Japanese Resources, including EDICT, KANJIDIC, and many useful links related to Japanese and Chinese languages.

Chandra Aindrila, 1989, Elsevier's Dictionary of Edible Mushrooms, Botanical and Common Names in Various Languages of the World. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. Amsterdam & New York.

CCCCM, 1998, China Committee of Culture Collection for Microorganisms, Catalogue of Cultures on-line Database."".

Compiling Group, 1981, A Classified and Illustrated Chinese - English Dictionary, Guangzhou Institute of Foreign Languages, Guangdong People's Publishing House. (Chinese-simplified, English, Latin).

ECHO-EURODICAUTOM, On-line Technical Dictionary in 11 languages provided by Information Market Europe, served by The University of Frankfurt, maintained by Jens Kurlanda. (Latin, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish).

EUTERPE, European Parliament, TRADOS MultiTerm Web Interface in 12 languages. (Latin, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish).

Källberg Magnus Prof., 1996 - 1998, Detta Sr Magnus riskfyllda sida! A classified list of species of Lactarius and an alphabetic list, Swedish, Latin, text in Swedish, links to images.

Kuo Michael, , 1998, North American Lactarius Species (see below "Resources").

Larsen Flemming V., 1995 - 1998, Fungi Images On The Net, A large and growing on-line Database referenced and linked to all original images. The ultimate reference for fungi images on the WWW. Index in Danish, Index in Latin, Text in Danish and English.

Ramon Pasqual, 1998, El Bolet Del Mes, Les Espècies, A selection of mushroom species in Catalan, Latin, Text in Spanish.

Romagnesi H. (Henri), 1967, Nouvel Atlas des Champignons. Publié sous les auspices de la Société Mycologique de France. Tome IV, Bordas, France.

Sugahara Tatsuyuki et al., 1992, New Edition of an Illustrated Encyclopedia of Japanese Ingredients, Kenpakusha. (Latin with authority names, Japanese-hiragana, Japanese-katakana , Japanese-kanji, text in Japanese).

Tanaka Tyôzaburô, 1976, Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World, Edited by Sasuke Nakao, Keigaku Publishing Co. Tokyo, Japan. (Latin with authority names, English, French, German, Hindi, Japanese-romaji).

Timmermann Volkmar 1995 - 1998, Alphabetical List of Species and updated linked index. Mycological Herbarium ,Botanical Garden and Museum, Trondheimsveien, Oslo. (Latin, Norwegian, Text in Norwegian & English).

Xie Zongwa & Yu Youqin (Editors), 1996, Materia Medica, Chinese Terminology, Vol. 1, Renminweisheng Publishing House Beijing, China. (Latin with authority names and Chinese-simplified, text in Chinese).

Yamaguchi Mas, 1983, World Vegetables, Principles, Production & Nutritive Values. AVI Publishing Co. Inc. Wesport, Connecticut. U.S.A.


Qiuxin Wu & Gregory M. Mueller, Comparative Studies on the Macrofungi of China and Eastern North America, Department of Botany, Field Museum, Chicago, Images on line index.

Flemming V. Larsen, 1995 - 1998, Fungi Images On The Net, A large and growing on-line Database referenced and linked to all original images. The ultimate reference for fungi images on the WWW. Index in Danish, Index in Latin, Text in Danish and English.

Koukichi Maruyama at: "", High quality images of Japanese fungi with Japanese and Latin names. Japanese software required to read Japanese names.

Kuo Michael, 1998, North American Lactarius Species. Search engine.

Volk Thomas J. 1998, Home Page of Tom Volk. The starting point towards all sorts of resources related to mushrooms. Collections of images, Scientific papers, Studies, General knowledge etc.

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Date created: 26 / 07 / 1998
Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow
Last modified: 28 / 07 / 1998
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