Sorting Manihot names

Species on this page ( A = names approved by most authorities, s = approved as synonyms) :


Manihot aipi Pohl

SYNONYM(S) : Jatropha dulcis J. Gmelin, Manihot aipi Pohl, Mandioca dulcis Parodi , Manihot dulcis (J. Gmelin) Pax, Manihot dulcis Pax. var. aipi (Pohl) Pax, Manihot palmata Pax. var. aipi (Pohl) Müll.Arg.

CHINESE : Tian mu shu.

DANISH : Sød maniok.

DUTCH : Broodwortel maniok.

ENGLISH : Sweet cassava.

FRENCH : Manioc doux, Ka mannyok (Guadeloupe).

GERMAN : Süßer Kassave, Süßer Maniok, Süsse Maniok.

ITALIAN : Manioca dolce.

PORTUGUESE : Aipim, Mandioca doce.

SPANISH : Boniato de las Antillas (Caribbean Islands), Mandioca dulce (Spain), Yuca comestible, Yuca dulce (Mexico).


This is now considered by most authors as a synonym of M. esculenta.

Manihot carthagenensis (Jacq.) Müll. Arg. subsp. carthagenensis

SYNONYM(S) :  Janipha anisophylla Griseb., Jatropha carthagenensis Jacq., Manihot anisophylla (Griseb.) Müll. Arg., Manihot boliviana Pax & K. Hoffm., Manihot grandistipula Pax , Manihot guaranitica Chodat & Hassl., Manihot guaranitica Chodat & Hassl. subsp. boliviana (Pax & K. Hoffm.) D. J. Rogers & Appan , Manihot recognita Pax  

Manihot carthagenensis (Jacq.) Müll. Arg. subsp. glaziovii (Müll. Arg.) Allem

SYNONYM(S) :  Manihot glaziovii Müll. Arg. 

ENGLISH :  Ceara rubber tree.

FRENCH : Caoutchoutier de

GERMAN : Cerakautschukbaum.

PORTUGUESE : Maniçoba-do-Ceará, Mandioca-brava, Maniçoba.

SPANISH :  Caucho blanco, Cauchotero de Ceará.

Manihot carthagenensis (Jacq.) Müll. Arg. subsp. hahnii Allem

Manihot esculenta Crantz

SYNONYM(S) : Janipha manihot H.B.K. , Jatropha janipha Lour., Jatropha loureiri Steud., Jatropha manihot L., Manihot loureiri Pohl, Manihot manihot (L.) Cockerell, Manihot melanobasis Muell. Arg. 

ARABIC :     تابيوكا  ,   المنيهوت نبات    , دقيق البفرة

ASSAMESE :   Kuri aloo,  শিমলু আলু   Ximolu alu.

CHINESE : Mu shu.

DANISH : Maniok.

DUTCH : Cassave, Maniok.

ENGLISH : Cassava, Manioc, Tapioca (edible starch), Tapioca pearls (product), Tapioca plant.

FINNISH : Maniokki, Kassava.

FRENCH : Manioc, Tapioca.

GERMAN : Cassava, Maniok.

GUJARATI :  સાબુદાણા  Sabudana (pearls).

HINDI :  कसावा Kasāvā,   Marachini, Mara valle kilangu, Maravalli,  साबूदाना   Sābūdānā (pearls), Simla aloo, Simul alu, टैपिओका Ṭaipi'ōkā, टैपीओक  Ṭaipī'ōka .

ITALIAN : Manioca.

JAPANESE : Imo noki, Kyassaba, Maniokku, Tapioka noki.

KANNADA :   Kolli, Maragenasu,  ಸಾಬಕ್ಕಿ  Sabakki (pearls), ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಬ್ಬಕ್ಕಿ  Sabba akki.

MALAY : Ubi kayu, Kaspe (Indonesia), Singkong (Indonesia).

MALAYALAM :   Cheeni കപ്പ  Kappa, Maraccīni (pearls), Maracheeni, Kolli, Marakizhangu.

MARATHI : Sabu dana (pearls).

NEPALESE : Simal tarul.

PORTUGUESE : Aipim (Brazil), Macaxeira (Brazil), Mandioca (Brazil), Maniba (Brazil).

SANSKRIT : Karrapendalamu.

SINHALESE :  Mangnokka.

SPANISH : Caxamote (Guatemala), Guacamote (Ecuador), Farinha, Huacamote (Ecuador), Mandioca (Paraguay), Mañoco (Puerto Rico), Yuca (Lat. America).

SWAHILI : Mhogo.

SWEDISH : Maniok.

TAGALOG : Kamoteng kahoy, Sago.

TAMIL :   Javvarisi (pearls), Kuchikezhangu (roots),  Kappakezhangu (roots), Maravallikilangu (Maravaḷḷi kilanku), Maravallikizhangu.

TELUGU :  కంద  Kanda,  కర్రపెండలము  Karrapendalam, Karrapendalamu,  పెండలము  Pendalamu, సగ్గు బియ్యం   Saggu biyyaṁ, సగ్గు బియ్యము  Saggu biyyamu.

THAI : Mansampalang (Man sam parang, Mun sumpalung).

URDU :  Sābūdānā (pearls).

VIETNAMESE :  Bột năng (flour), Bột sắn (starch), Khoai mì (starch), Sắn (root).


There may be a sweet form / subspecies / species that ought to be recognized. In which case some of the above botanical and common names may apply to it. Some authors place the sweet cassava under M. aipi and the bitter cassava under M. utilissima. Many countries recognize the two types and it seems wise to do so from the culinary and medicinal view points.  Taxonomists need to address this perhaps?

A number of the above names refer to the sago, a product manufactured from some species of palms Metroxylon rumphii Mart. & Metroxylon sagu Rottb. in particular, as well as some cycas such as  Cycas circinalis L. & Cycas revoluta Thunb. 

Manihot esculanta Crantz 'Macapera'

ENGLISH : Brazilian cooking cassava

Manihot esculanta Crantz 'Mandiba'

ENGLISH : Early Brazilian cassava.

Manihot palmata Müll.Arg.

SYNONYM(S) :  Jatropha palmata Vell., nom. illeg., Manihot palmata (Vell.) Pax var. genuina Müll.Arg., nom. inval., Manihot palmata (Vell.) Pax, nom. illeg.

ENGLISH :  Brazilian arrowroot.

Manihot tripartita (Spreng.) Müll. Arg.

Manihot tripartita (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. subsp. indivisa Allem

Manihot tripartita (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. subsp. tripartita

Jatropha tripartita Spreng.

Manihot tripartita (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. subsp. xavantinensis (D. J. Rogers & Appan) Allem

SYNONYM(S) : Manihot xavantinensis D. J. Rogers & Appan

Manihot utilissima Pohl.

SYNONYM(S) : Mandioca utilissima Link, Manihot edule A.Rich., Manihot manihot Karst.

CHINESE : Ku mu shu.

ENGLISH : Bitter cassava.

FRENCH : Manioc amer.

GERMAN : Bittere Manioka.

ITALIAN : Manioca amara.

SPANISH : Mandioca amarga.

PORTUGUESE : Mandioca amarela, Mandioca brava.

SPANISH : Mandioca amarela, Mandioca brava, Yuca agria (Cuba).


This is considered by some authors as a synonym of M. esculenta. More likely to be so than the sweet kind , whether the sweet cassava is called M. aipi or something else.





Porcher Michel H. et al. 1995 - 2020, Sorting Manihot Names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database - A Work in Progress.  The University of Melbourne. Australia. < > (2012).

General Bibliography
Specific & complementary


EURODICAUTOM, On-line Technical Dictionary in 12 languages provided by the European Commission < >.

Govaerts R. et al., 2000, Complete List of Names - Manihot from World Checklist Project of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. < >.

Hanelt Peter et al. , 2001, Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Hoerticultural Crops, Vol. xx. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (Editors), First English Edition, Springer.

IPK Gatersleben, 2002, Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. < >.

IPNI, 2003, International Plant Name Index. Online Database. < >.

Mabberley D.J. 1997, The Plant-Book : a Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants, 2d Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Schütz & Kanomata, 2003, Vegetables - Hortigranjeiros, Glossario Sobre Verduras e Legumes. < >.

USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available:

Wang Zongxun et al. 1996, A New Latin, Chinese, English Botanical Nomenclature. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany. Aviation Industry Publisher, Beijing.

Wiersema J. H. & León B. 1999, World Economic Plants : a Standard Reference. CRC Press LLC.

Xie Zongwa & Yu Youqin (Editors), 1996, Materia Medica, Chinese Terminology, Vol. 1, Renminweisheng Publishing House Beijing, China. (Latin with authority names and Chinese-simplified, text in Chinese).


Contributors to this page (Personal communication) : In progress.


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Date created: 01 / 01 / 2004
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Last modified: 08 / 03 / 2012
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