It is always difficult to find some specific names in any printed reference because indexes cannot always include all the possible combinations. The purpose of this site is to help, mostly but not exclusively, non-experts tracking down the name of mushrooms (mostly of the edible kind) or other fungi such as those used medicinally.
Generally we have tried to place the preferred, most up-to-date botanical name on the top of each listing but this is not always the case for several reasons. Sometimes the latest name is not known by most non-specialists but on the other hand "the trade" is more familiar with an older name. Sometimes, although technically accurate, the new nomenclature appears somehow illogical so, at the risk of frustrating the experts, we make the purely editorial decision of keeping the older name on top. We believe that as long as the latest name(s) is / are mentioned among the synonyms the purpose of our listing is fulfilled.
Although we give an indication of the edibility or toxicity of most species one should not rely on these notes alone to judge if it is safe to eat a specific fungus. Very often a specific processing or the picking at a very specific stage of development is vital in determining whether a mushroom is edible or not. Moreover the taste of various cultures around the world varies greatly so do the ability of their people to tolerate some toxic factors. The on-line photographs and descriptions, the reference books listed in the Bibliography will offer detailed descriptions and provide all the appropriate warnings. Our indication of edibility for European species is based on Michael Jordan's Encyclopedia of Fungi of Britain & Europe (1995) (English language) and on Henri Romagnesi's Nouvel Atlas des Champignons - 4 Volumes, Bordas (1967) (French language). It is supported and / or complemented by Aindrila Chandra's evaluation, and reads as follows :
Terminology used by authors
Indication used in our listings
(inedible) or (non consommable) or (immangeable)
"Edible", "Edible if cooked", "Edible but poor", "Edible but worthless", "Comestible mais sans valeur", "Edible only after cooking"
(edible) or (comestible)
"Edible and good" = "Comestible, bon"
(edible **) or (comestible **)
"Edible and excellent" = "Comestible, excellent"
(edible ***) or (comestible ***)
"Inedible, possibly poisonous", "Probably poisonous", "Dangerously poisonous", "Poisonous"
"Lethally poisonous" , "Poisonous, perhaps lethal"
Bedevian A. K. 1936, Illustrated Polyglottic Dictionary of Plant Names, Argus & Papazian Presses, Cairo. (Latin, Arabic, Armenian, English, French, German, Italian, Turkish).
Breen Jim Prof. 1998, Japanese Resources, including EDICT, KANJIDIC, and many useful links related to Japanese and Chinese languages.
Chandra Aindrila, 1989, Elsevier's Dictionary of Edible Mushrooms, Botanical and Common Names in Various Languages of the World. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. Amsterdam & New York.
CCCCM, 1998, China Committee of Culture Collection for Microorganisms, Catalogue of Cultures on-line Database."http://www.im.ac.cn/database/catalogs.html".
Compiling Group, 1981, A Classified and Illustrated Chinese - English Dictionary, Guangzhou Institute of Foreign Languages, Guangdong People's Publishing House. (Chinese-simplified, English, Latin).
Christensen Morten , 1996, Tricholoma in Denmark, A descriptive list (in English with botanical names).
ECHO-EURODICAUTOM, On-line Technical Dictionary in 11 languages provided by Information Market Europe, served by The University of Frankfurt, maintained by Jens Kurlanda. (Latin, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish).
Economic Fungi of China 1998, http://www.im.ac.cn/efungi/fungimenu.html
EUTERPE, European Parliament, TRADOS MultiTerm Web Interface in 12 languages. (Latin, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish).
I.S.H.S., 1990, Elsevier's dictionary of horticultural and agricultural plant production in ten languages. Compiled under the auspices of the I. S. H. S., Wageningen, The Netherlands with the cooperation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Management, and Fisheries, The Hague, The Netherlands, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. Amsterdam; New York. ( Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish).
Jordan M. (Michael), 1995, The Encyclopedia of Fungi of Britain & Europe, David & Charles, UK.
Källberg Magnus Prof., 1996 - 1998, Detta Sr Magnus riskfyllda sida! A classified list of species of Lactarius and an alphabetic list, Swedish, Latin, text in Swedish, links to images.
Kuo Michael, firstname.lastname@example.org , 1998, North American Lactarius Species (see below "Resources").
Larsen Flemming V., 1995 - 1998, Fungi Images On The Net, A large and growing on-line Database referenced and linked to all original images. The ultimate reference for fungi images on the WWW. Index in Danish, Index in Latin, Text in Danish and English.
Myrdal Monika, 1998, Swedish Museum of Natural History "http://www.nrm.se/kbo/svampbok/riddarmuss.html.se".
Ramon Pasqual, 1998, El Bolet Del Mes, Les Espècies, A selection of mushroom species in Catalan, Latin, Spanish, Text in Catalan & Spanish.
Romagnesi H. (Henri), 1958, Nouvel Atlas des Champignons. Publié sous les auspices de la Société Mycologique de France. Tome II, Bordas, France.
Romagnesi H. (Henri), 1961, Nouvel Atlas des Champignons. Publié sous les auspices de la Société Mycologique de France. Tome III, Bordas, France.
Romagnesi H. (Henri), 1967, Nouvel Atlas des Champignons. Publié sous les auspices de la Société Mycologique de France. Tome IV, Bordas, France.
Savela M. (Markku), 1998, Database of Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Fungi . (English, Finnish, Swedish and Botanical names). <http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/fungi/basidiomycetes/boletales/boletaceae/boletoideae/boletus/index.html> <http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/fungi/gasteromycetes/cantharellales/clavariaceae/clavaria/index.html > <http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/fungi/basidiomycetes/boletales/boletaceae/boletoideae/leccinum/index.html> <http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/fungi/gasteromycetes/lycoperdaceae/lycoperdon/index.html > <http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/fungi/gasteromycetes/cantharellales/clavariaceae/ramaria/index.html> <http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/fungi/basidiomycetes/boletales/boletaceae/suilloideae/suillus/index.html> <http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/fungi/basidiomycetes/boletales/boletaceae/xerocomoideae/xerocomus/index.html>
Sugahara Tatsuyuki et al., 1992, New Edition of an Illustrated Encyclopedia of Japanese Ingredients, Kenpakusha. (Latin with authority names, Japanese-hiragana, Japanese-katakana , Japanese-kanji, text in Japanese).
Tanaka Tyôzaburô, 1976, Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World, Edited by Sasuke Nakao, Keigaku Publishing Co. Tokyo, Japan. (Latin with authority names, English, French, German, Hindi, Japanese-romaji).
Timmermann Volkmar 1995 - 1998, Alphabetical List of Species and updated linked index. Mycological Herbarium ,Botanical Garden and Museum, Trondheimsveien, Oslo. (Latin, Norwegian, Text in Norwegian & English).
Volk Thomas J. 1997, Tom Volk's Fungus of the Month for January 1997. Oregon White Truffle.
Wheeler Daniel B. 1997 - 1998, Truffle Database. Probably the most comprehensive and up-to-date listing of Truffles ever published.
Wheeler Daniel B. 1998, Oregon White Truffle Home Page. Description, recipes etc.
Wood M. & Stevens F., 1997, MycoWeb, A collection of Descriptions and Photographs of Fungi, http://www.mykoweb.com/BAF/ba_index.html
Xie Zongwa & Yu Youqin (Editors), 1996, Materia Medica, Chinese Terminology, Vol. 1, Renminweisheng Publishing House Beijing, China. (Latin with authority names and Chinese-simplified, text in Chinese).
Yamaguchi Mas, 1983, World Vegetables, Principles, Production & Nutritive Values. AVI Publishing Co. Inc. Wesport, Connecticut. U.S.A.
Claudio Rossi e Franco Cipollone's Il Mondo dei funghi, 1999. A nicely presented set of pages on a small number of fungi with detailed indication of toxicity.Each page includes a colour photograph, a description in Italian and advice such as lists of look alike fungi which could be toxic. Italian
Eileen Seto's Photograph Collection < http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Andes/8896/Mania/mushroom.htm >
Flemming V. Larsen, 1995 - 1998, Fungi Images On The Net, A large and growing on-line Database referenced and linked to all original images. The ultimate reference for fungi images on the WWW. Index in Danish, Index in Latin, Text in Danish and English.
Gruppo Micologico G. Camisola - Asti - Italy. Beautifully presented collections of thumbnails and botanical names linked to high quality photographs. Collection of Peziza, Collection of Helvella and more. Italian
Koukichi Maruyama's Wild Mushrooms of Tokyo .1999 Version. High quality images of Japanese fungi with Japanese and Latin names. Japanese software required to read Japanese text but Japanese names (katakana script) on most photographs. Japanese
Kuo Michael, 1998, North American Lactarius Species. Search engine.
La Raccolta dei Funghi del Veneto, 1999, Regione Veneto, Assessorato Agricoltura e Foreste Dipartimento per le Foreste e l'Economia Montana. Short lists of edible and toxic funghi linked to beautiful colour photographs, descriptions in Italian, common Italian names and detailed indication of toxicity. Italian
Mac Phàdruig M.R. 1999, (Mìcheil Rob) A Taste of Scotland - Poisonous Fungi. A detailed list of toxic fungi. English
Motta Romo J. (Jesus), 1999, Leccinum corsicum, YESCA, Revista de Micologia N°9. (Links to Photographs and descriptions in Spanish). Spanish
Nicolás Rodríguez, Asociacion Micológica de la Sierras Subbeticas Priego de Córdoba < http://www.arrakis.es/~micologia/> Spanish site displaying among many other things an index of Spanish names. Spanish
Petersen Ronald H.'s GUIDE to BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE . Index of the Tennessee Tutorial with links to ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature).
Pietro Pavone e Pietro Signorello, FUNGHI DELL'ETNA,text in Italian, Many common names in Italian and local dialects. <http://www.provincia.ct.it/ctnatura/flora/FUNGHI.html > Italian
Qiuxin Wu & Gregory M. Mueller, Comparative Studies on the Macrofungi of China and Eastern North America, Department of Botany, Field Museum, Chicago, Images on line index.
Arnolds E. Dr. et al. Setalist , List of the names of fungi found in La Palma (Canary Islands) in the last 17 years - with the collaboration of internationally known mycologists. Specific epithets are indexed in alphabetical order. Spanish
Société Mycologique de Côte d'Or, 1999, 100 Champignons de Bourgogne. A French index, little photographs and some detailed (at times poetic) French descriptions. French
Takahashi Hiroshi's 1998 Kinoko-ya, Mushrooms and Fungi of Japan, ( http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~IM6H-TKHS/01eng/0e_index.htm). A bilingual collection of beautifully presented photographs and descriptions. Japanese
Volk Thomas J. 1998, Home Page of Tom Volk. The starting point towards all sorts of resources related to mushrooms. Collections of images, Scientific papers, Studies, General knowledge etc.
Date created: 09 / 03 / 1999
Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow
Last modified: 09 / 03 / 1999
Access: No restriction
Copyright © 1995 - 1999, The University of Melbourne.
Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher